Fixed broadband is delivered to a user via several technology platforms including cable, digital subscriber line (DSL) over phone lines, fiber optics, and fixed wireless. Fixed broadband is designed for stationary use at a fixed location such as a home, business, or institution. From one location, however, fixed broadband service is often broadcast as a Wi-Fi network to connect nearby devices.
The following map shows where broadband is available in the community.
Supporting an established formal, long-term community Technology Action Committee can help to sustain the implementation of the technology action plan and the growth of broadband and technology access, adoption, and use in the community. By continuing to support this effort and seeking 501c3 status, the Bastrop County Broadband Taskforce can be empowered to take on actions that they deem necessary for the sustainability of the community regarding broadband and technology now and in the future. Ideally, the team will:
1) promote broadband and technology access adoption and use;
2) serve as the de facto go-to resource for broadband and technology for the community;
3) seek ways to educate and empower the community regarding broadband and technology;
4) unify the community on broadband and technology, in order to better understand and communicate broadband and technology opportunities;
5) take action on recommendations from the plan as well as others that they may find necessary and beneficial to the growth of their community.
Support and promote an empowered group of passionate and interested individuals focused on broadband and technology access, adoption, and use.
Support and promote an empowered group of passionate and interested individuals focused on broadband and technology access, adoption, and use.
1) Determine an interim board that will be able to provide the initial leadership and direction, set bylaws, structure, and apply for nonprofit status.
2) Work with a local lawyer, reduced rate where possible, finalize the organization and get non-profit status applications completed.
3) Begin regularly scheduled meetings, and recruit businesses and individuals to the TAC.
4) Create a centralized technology portal/website that promotes local technology resources for use by residents. Resources would include calendars (promoting local tech events and showing available hours at public computer centers), online training resources, and local computer resources.
Community service organizations, Libraries, Schools, Internet Service Providers, Local and County Government, Local Businesses and Industries, Economic Development Groups, and others as needed.
Public-private partnerships take many forms, limited only by the imagination and legal framework in which the municipality operates. Some communities issue municipal bonds to fund construction of a network, which they lease to private carriers, with the lease payments covering the debt service. Others create non-profit organizations to develop networks in collaboration with private carriers or provide seed investment to jump start construction of networks that the private sector is unable to cost-justify on its own., A public-private partnership should not be simply seen as a method of financing. The strength of these partnerships is that each party brings something important to the table that the other doesn’t have or can’t easily acquire. The community can offer infrastructure (publicly owned building rooftops, light poles, towers, and other vertical assets for mounting infrastructure) for the deployment of a network, as well as committed anchor tenants. Private-sector partners bring network-building and operations experience.
Leverage existing community assets in partnership with private sector carriers to expand broadband network deployment.
Action 1 – Determine Priorities: Competition, enhanced service, equity and service to all, public control over infrastructure, risk avoidance, redundancy, etc.
Action 2 – Examine models of partnership:
- Model 1: Private Investment, Public Facilitation: Make available public assets like fiber and conduit, share geographic information systems data, streamline permitting and inspection processes, offer economic development incentives to attract private broadband investment
- Model 2: Private Execution, Public Funding: Identify revenue streams that can be directed to a private partner, issue RFP for private turnkey execution.
- Model 3: Shared Investment and Risk: Evaluate using assets to attract private investment, evaluate funding new assets to attract private investment, evaluate building new fiber assets to businesses and/or homes for leasing to private ISPs.
Action 3 – Understand key legal considerations for localities looking to build a broadband partnership: Review authority issues, understand the legal tools and instruments that could shape the partnership, negotiate the agreement.
Local units of government; Broadband providers; Community anchor institutions; Residents and businesses
Building rural broadband from the ground up: http://bit.ly/2dx4MBw
United States Department of Agriculture: http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahom
BroadbandUSA’s Introduction to Effective Public-Private Partnerships: https://broadbandusa.ntia.doc.gov/sites/default/files/publication-pdfs/bbusa_effective_public_private_partnerships.pdf
Local community policies and a lack of local coordination are often major hurdles to broadband providers, as they work to expand their networks and advance access to broadband services. This solution seeks to streamline this process, by eliminating unnecessary policies, consolidating information, and appointing a single point of contact that can ensure that the community is working as efficiently as possible with providers and gaining access to the networks and services that are needed. All community stakeholders, local governing bodies, agencies, utilities, etc. should meet and identify all of the local policies, regulations, and permits required of a telecommunications provider. These disparate elements should be organized into a set of requirements, and a website established with all necessary forms available electronically and capable to be electronically signed. This group will also appoint a single point of contact (SPOC) for all telecommunications infrastructure development projects. This individual should be the community liaison with providers, assist both the community and the providers through any necessary communications, and work through any necessary issues. As a commitment to this process, the local governing bodies should pass language that requires this. along with agreed-upon times for responses to provider outreach, permit approval times, and authorizes the SPOC.
Provide a framework through which a community can demonstrate that they are a “Digital Ready Community” that has streamlined policies, cleared barriers, and is committed to making broadband infrastructure deployment in the community a priority. Being a Digital Ready community can result in several benefits:
- It provides the community with the opportunity to understand their requirements and makes it easier for the community to assist and work with providers who seek to expand services.
- It gives providers a centralized location to identify necessary regulations, and the opportunity to work with a local jurisdiction to address those regulations in an effective manner.
- Through the Community Broadband SPOC, a liaison is established that helps providers and the community work together and improve communication.
Action 1 – Conduct an initial meeting of involved parties, with a request that any needs/concerns they have related to broadband be brought to this formative meeting.
Action 2 – Hold a second meeting of this group (and any others who were identified during the first meeting) to review the local regulations and requirements, and to discuss any new requirements that may have been thought of.
Action 3 – Hold a third meeting to review the final list of local regulations and ensure that the responsible bodies have the necessary action items to amend those requirements/policies and to identify the Community Broadband POC candidates.
Action 4 – Pass the necessary language in the governing bodies to amend any necessary regulations or policies, as well as authorizing the SPOC according to local law.
Action 5 – Publish the list of requirements along with the necessary electronic documentation as well as the contact information for the SPOC.
Action 6 – Promote the Digital Ready Community site and SPOC, and apply for Certification by completing the application and submitting all necessary documentation
Local government, utilities, planning commissions, zoning boards, other right-of-way managers, etc
Indiana Broadband Ready: https://www.in.gov/indianabroadband/2632.htm
Tennessee Broadband Ready:
Georgia Broadband Ready: https://broadband.georgia.gov/media/4/download
Stark County, Indiana Ordinance for a Broadband Ready Community: http://co.starke.in.us/ordinances/2020/Ordinance%20for%20a%20Broadband%20Ready%20Community.pdf
High capital investment costs, including permit processing, pole attachment costs, and lack of effective planning and coordination with public authorities, negatively impact the case for deployment. For example, the FCC’s National Broadband Plan concludes that, “the rates, terms, and conditions for access to rights-of-way [including pole attachments] significantly impact broadband deployment.” The costs associated with obtaining permits and leasing pole attachments and rights-of-way is one of the most expensive cost functions in a service provider’s plans to expand or upgrade service, especially in rural markets where the ratio of poles to households goes off the charts. Furthermore, the process is time consuming. “Make ready” work, which involves moving wires and other equipment attached to a pole to ensure proper spacing between equipment and compliance with electric and safety codes, can take months to complete., Community and provider collaboration to problem solve around local pole attachment and other right-of-way issues is one of the most effective opportunities to encourage faster, new deployment of infrastructure.
Ensure that local policies and ordinances are conducive to wired and wireless broadband build-out.
Action 1 – Speak with providers and determine barriers they face at a local and county level.
Action 2 – Review local policies, ordinances, and other barriers to broadband deployment and consult with community leaders, providers, utilities, and other members of the community to ensure that they are supporting policies (local ordinances, pole attachments, rights-of-way) that are conducive to broadband build-out.
Action 3 – Develop an awareness campaign targeting local government leaders to inform them of the benefits of broadband to the entire community.
Local units of government, particular planning and zoning officials; Broadband providers; County government, particular road commissions; Utility companies and pole owners; Others with right-of-way jurisdiction
Guide to best practices for reducing local barriers to broadband expansion: http://bit.ly/2d42Jcm
Cutting red tape for tower construction: http://bit.ly/2d71GG4
The Federal Highway Administration has indicated that “ninety percent of the cost of deploying broadband is when the work requires significant excavation of the roadway.” A “dig once” policy increases coordination between government agencies and utility companies to minimize the frequency of roadway excavation and disturbance. These policies aim to facilitate joint trenching cost savings and ensure that broadband infrastructure improvements are considered alongside other infrastructure and public works projects. To this end, these policies encourage or require that every infrastructure project include notification and facilitation of opportunities to lower the costs of broadband infrastructure investment by coordinating project planning when a right-of-way (ROW) disturbance occurs. Considering the rocky terrain in the area, such policies could make it significantly easier for internet service providers to expand broadband infrastructure in the community at a lower cost, making it accessible to more households in the area that currently rely on wireless or satellite connections.
Explore policy options that will make it easier for broadband providers to improve broadband infrastructure in the area. Where feasible and cost-effective, enact such policies. One prime example is a “Dig Once” policy whereby public or private excavators are required to coordinate with local authorities to install fiber or conduit whenever ground is broken on a public right-of-way.
Action 1 – Explore legislative strategies enacted by states and municipalities and determine if such actions would be legal and cost-effective.
Action 2 – Determine what steps would be necessary to enact a Dig Once provision that will be flexible and create as little disruption as possible, while still resulting in the desired goal of incentivizing the expansion of local broadband infrastructure.
Action 3 – Continue to monitor the impact of such policies and revise as necessary.
Economic development organizations
Fixed broadband providers
Local and county government
Road and highway departments
Utilities and other entities likely to dig frequently on public rights-of-way
Accelerating Broadband Infrastructure Deployment from the United States Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, and The Office of Policy and Governmental Affairs: https://bit.ly/35jMBtN
Model Codes for Municipalities from the Broadband Deployment Advisory Committee: https://bit.ly/3bSv92c
Texas Department of Transportation’s Right of Way Utilities Manual: https://bit.ly/2WctAWj
Perform an analysis of unserved areas to understand local assets and any barriers to broadband deployment. The local team should solicit feedback from residents of the unserved territory on their demand.
Determine the reasons why some areas of the community remain unserved, determine the feasibility of deploying various Internet systems in the defined area, and generate a business case for deployment.
Action 1 – Market Analysis: A market analysis should also be performed to identify potential broadband providers, understand potential service offerings, and respective rates.
County and local units of government with high number of underserved households; Broadband providers; Residents and businesses
Fiber to the Home Council toolkit for communities looking to expand broadband infrastructure: http://bit.ly/2d18QL6
To maximize the benefits that wireless hotspots provide, a community must ensure there are enough hotspots available, along with a published inventory of the locations of each wireless hotspot. Wireless hotspots are classified as free or available for a fee. Hotspots are often found at restaurants, train stations, airports, libraries, hotels, hospitals, coffee shops, bookstores, fuel stations, department stores, supermarkets, RV parks and campgrounds, public pay phones, and other public places. Many universities and schools have wireless networks on their campuses as well.
Expand access to broadband by increasing the number of publicly available Wi-Fi hotspots.
Action 1 – Develop an inventory of public Wi-Fi hotspots in the community, a Wi-Fi inventory.
Action 2 – Conduct an analysis to identify key areas and organizations for the expansion of local wireless hotspots.
Action 3 – The local Chamber of Commerce and tourism groups should promote the hotspots to ensure maximum visibility in the community.
Community and business leaders; Civic leaders and organization members; Citizens; Local Government; Broadband Providers; Community Anchor Institutions
Mapping Community Wi-Fi Access: http: //tech.ed.gov/stories/mapping-community-wifi-access/
Community Wi-Fi – A Primer: http://www.cablelabs.com/community-wi-fi-a-primer/
Map of Wi-Fi hotspots in Illinois:
Free Wi-Fi hotspot locator apps: https://www.lifewire.com/free-online-wifi-hotspot-locators-818276
Teleworking offers significant benefits to employers, employees, self-employed individuals, and entrepreneurs. Benefits include business infrastructure savings, emissions reduction, and congestion management. Further, teleworking can help businesses and government agencies reduce real estate, energy, and other overhead costs. Research has shown that teleworking programs can increase an employer’s productivity and enable it to continue operating without skipping a beat in the face of a natural disaster or other emergency that might otherwise bring business to a halt. Teleworking allows employees to lower their commuting costs, and accommodates people with disabilities, the elderly, working mothers, and rural residents who may not be able to work outside the home. It is unlikely that all employees will be able to telework. A good way to start is to identify types of positions or job types that can be performed remotely and initiate a trial period and track results. Get feedback from all involved regarding the benefits and challenges and fine-tune as needed.
Promote or develop flexible efficient and effective work arrangements.
Action 1 – Establish a cross-functional project team, including labor representatives, employers, educators, and other stakeholders.
Action 2 – Conduct assessment of teleworker and organization technology needs.
Action 3 – Identify eligibility criteria to ensure that teleworkers are selected on an equitable basis using criteria such as suitability of tasks and employee performance.
Action 4 – Promote the establishment of teleworking pilot programs among local employers.
Action 5 – Develop a telework agreement template for use between teleworkers and their managers.
Action 6 – Track changes to the teleworking needs among businesses and workers, adjusting the telework promotion to best suit your community’s current and future needs.
Businesses; Business organizations, (e.g., chambers of commerce, economic development corporations, associations, etc.); Citizens and interest groups
Building a Telework Program: https://bit.ly/3bUaNWf
Teleworking Brings Jobs Home: https://bit.ly/2KST8SN
Job Opportunities via Digital Works Come to Cheboygan, MI: https://bit.ly/2So47YF
Publicly Operated Telework Facilities: An Economic Development Opportunity for Michigan’s Rural and Tourism-Oriented Communities: https://bit.ly/2YkoSID
Broadband offers a unique opportunity to achieve a comprehensive vision for enhancing the safety and security of your community’s residents. Broadband can help public safety personnel prevent emergencies and respond swiftly when they occur. Broadband can also provide your community with new ways of calling for help and receiving emergency information., For example, first responders from different jurisdictions and agencies often cannot communicate during emergencies due to disparate communication systems and the lack of integration between these systems. However, wireless broadband supports the interoperability of communications systems that would allow first responders anywhere in the nation to communicate with each other and send and receive critical voice and data to save lives, reduce injuries, and prevent acts of crime and terror., Furthermore, with broadband, 911 call centers (also known as public safety answering points or PSAPs) could receive texts, pictures, and videos from the public and relay them to first responders. Similarly, the government could use broadband networks to disseminate vital information to the public during emergencies in multiple formats and languages.
Leverage broadband technologies to enhance emergency communications to and from the public.
Action 1 – Create a working group to lead the initiative with representatives from all public safety entities, and policymakers
Action 2 – Identify the current status of public safety communications infrastructure and policies
Action 3 – Engage public safety solution providers and internet service providers to explore opportunities to address the identified shortcomings
Action 4 – Identify funding opportunities
Action 5 – Develop a plan for implementing the identified solutions and seek funding
Action 6 – Engage the public to build awareness for new public safety services and assess the impact of the services. Adjust the implementation plan accordingly.
Public Safety Agencies, PSAP Operators, Local and County Government, Internet Service Providers, State and Local Interoperability Coordinators.
Public Safety Communications http://psc.apcointl.org
Telemedicine (or telehealth) can help to address challenges associated with living in sparsely populated areas and having to travel long distances to seek medical care—particularly for patients with chronic illnesses. It also addresses the issue of the lack of medical specialists in remote areas by awarding access to specialists in major hospitals situated in other cities, states, or countries. While telemedicine can be delivered to patient homes, it can also be implemented in partnership with local clinics, libraries, churches, schools, or businesses that have the appropriate equipment and staff to manage it. The most critical steps in promoting telemedicine are ensuring that patients and medical professionals have access to broadband service, understanding the benefits and barriers of telemedicine, being aware of the technologies required for such a service, and understanding how to develop, deliver, use, and evaluate telemedicine services.
The goal of this initiative is to identify ways to deliver improved healthcare services to rural residents.
Action 1 – Create a working group to lead the initiative.
Action 2 – Identify the local benefits of and barriers to implementing telehealth programs among patients and healthcare providers.
Action 3 – Engage telehealth solutions providers and internet service providers to explore opportunities to addressing the identified barriers.
Action 4 – Identify telehealth funding opportunities.
Action 5 – Develop a plan for implementing the identified solutions and seek funding.
Action 6 – Engage the public to build awareness for new telehealth services and assess the impact of the serivces. Adjust the implementation plan accordingly.
Healthcare Providers, Internet Service Providers, Public Health Agencies, Community Service Organizations, Citizens
Seven Actions Providers Can Take to Launch Telemedicine Services Successfully: http://www.medialogic.com/health-care-marketing/blog/7-actions-providers-can-take-to-launch-telemedicine-services-successfully/
Online content and web-enabled course delivery can provide opportunities for learning beyond the traditional face-to-face course format found in many K-12 institutions. These applications can be further bolstered by providing students with their own internet-enabled devices. Advancements in technology and personal computing provide new opportunities for student engagement and learning. Implementing a 1:1 device program is not a light undertaking, and it requires the input and dedication of administrators, teachers, and students.
The goal of this initiative is to improve student learning through individualized devices with access to the internet.
Action 1 – Create your 1:1 vision and leadership team: A 1:1 program is not about the devices; rather, it’s about creating an environment where all students have greater access to learning resources. Planning teams should include a diverse array of stakeholders from the school including administrators, teachers, students, and others.
Action 2 – Research other implementations: Many schools have implemented 1:1 device programs across the country, some more successfully than others. Seek out examples from similar districts, including those in the same community.
Action 3 – Assess district readiness: There are a number of factors to consider including leadership, long-term funding, staff skillsets, training/professional development, enabling or hindering policies, device purchase vs. bring-your-own-device model, Internet connection and wireless capabilities, etc.
Action 4 – Hire a project manager and consult with experts: Topical and technical expertise could be beneficial to the project to bring outside perspective, experience, and knowledge of how to successfully implement the program.
Action 5 – Create a strategic plan: The strategic plan should outline the vision, research, and readiness work completed to date, and should also include goals and objectives, communications plans, finances, hardware and infrastructure, capacity building, benchmarking, and project timelines.
Action 6 – Develop a financial plan: A minimum five-year financial plan should be in place when implementation begins. Short and long-term funding should be considered as devices age, need maintenance and need replacing, and bandwidth increased.
Action 7 – Assess infrastructure needs: 1:1 device programs require robust infrastructure to support the connectivity of hundreds or thousands of new devices. Infrastructure issues include bandwidth, connectivity and access points, data systems, data management and storage, mobile device management, security and content filtering (if applicable), tech support and maintenance, etc.
Consider a pilot: Pilot programs help to demonstrate capabilities and help to work out bugs and test various solutions.
Action 8 – Ensure curriculum and pedagogy embrace technology: New technology brings new ways to deliver knowledge. Curriculum directors, teachers, and students should examine and research new ways to leverage student devices in and out of the classroom.
Action 9 – Develop/participate in collaborative and ongoing professional development: New technology and curriculum requires new and ongoing professional development for instructors. Professional development should follow a cycle of learning, discussing, testing, and adjusting until new curriculum and methods work for students.
K-12 Schools, Parents and Students, Internet Service Providers, Community Service Organizations, Libraries
One-to-One Institute’s Project RED: https://www.k12blueprint.com/content/one-one-institute-0
Tips, Tricks, and Techniques for Your One-to-One Classroom: https://www.weareteachers.com/41-tips-tricks-techniques-11-classroom/
Five Steps for Implementing a Successful 1:1 Environment: https://www.edutopia.org/blog/one-to-one-environment-andrew-marcinek
The role of libraries as a community technology hub or as a facilitator of digital inclusion has never been more important. As the ability to use a computer has become a fundamental skill that enables individuals to engage with each other and access technology applications and services, libraries must not only make sure high-speed Internet is available, but ensure they have the bandwidth to support greater user experience. With the FCC recommending a minimum speed of 100 Mbps for serving smaller communities and 1 Gbps for libraries serving populations greater than 50,000 people, the community should develop a pathway for advancing speeds in local libraries.
To provide adequate bandwidth for library patrons.
Action 1 – Perform a technology assessment of the library system.
Action 7 – Review the library’s technology needs periodically to ensure that resources remain up-to-date with the increasing needs of the community.
Libraries and library co-ops (if applicable); Schools; Broadband providers; Local and county governments
Schools, Health, and Libraries Broadband Coalition report on broadband subsidies for anchor institutions: http://bit.ly/2dkF2qN
The Challenges of Broadband in Rural Libraries: https://www.govtech.com/network/The-Challenges-of-Broadband-in-Rural-Libraries.html
Higher education institutions often provide multiple connectivity points for students and faculty including, classroom access, wireless coverage in common areas and student centers, as well as high-speed broadband access to student living areas. Before expanding access, a network assessment should be undertaken to ensure current coverage. Part of the expansion should include indirect requirements such as the potential need for increased tech support and power consumption due to increased usage of devices. Other similar community anchor institutions could also be brought into discussions if opportunities exist to leverage higher education connections for improved connectivity at K-12 schools or libraries.
Ensure that all higher education campuses (especially community colleges) have adequate access to broadband networks.
Action 1 – Gather key stakeholders
Action 2 – Assess campus connectivity in detail and determine current and future needs
Action 3 – Engage with current internet service provider and other potential providers to determine costs and next steps
Action 4 – Improve connectivity to students, staff, and the public
Higher Education Institutions, Internet Service Providers, K-12 Schools, Libraries
HUIT To Improve Wi-Fi Coverage on Campus: http://www.thecrimson.com/article/2012/4/20/HUIT-wifi-harvard/
For small businesses, an online presence and the use of social media are vital to stay competitive in the twenty-first century. A website and social media are not just for companies that have the experience, staff, or budget; any small business can tap into these resources. Training should be provided to small businesses regarding the use of websites and social media within that small business. Website topics should range from starting a basic website to more advanced topics such as e-commerce. Social media topics should include a variety of social media outlets including Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, and LinkedIn., Broadband empowers small businesses to achieve operational scale more quickly by lowering start-up costs through faster business registration and improved access to customers, suppliers, and new markets. According to Connected Nation’s 2012 Jobs and Broadband Report, businesses that are using the Internet bring in approximately $300,000 more in median annual revenues than their unconnected.
Encourage small local businesses to develop websites and to use social media, e-commerce, and other advanced uses of broadband and technology.
Action 1 – Work with the local chamber of commerce and/or libraries to expand existing programs that promote e-commerce, such as free websites and social media development, within the small businesses of the community.
Action 2 – Partner with providers to sponsor workshops. (ISPs may be willing to sponsor events since small-business workshops will likely lead to increases broadband adoption and use).
Action 3 – Identify regional and community partners with resources and expertise to assist the community in producing “free” website and social media workshops.
Action 4 – Schedule workshops and advertise classes via local media.
Chamber of commerce/economic development organization; Libraries; Community College; Broadband providers; IT/Technology organizations; Local SCORE representatives
On-Site Technology Training for Small, Rural Michigan Businesses: https://bit.ly/2Yh4zvL
The Importance of Tech for Small Businesses: https://bit.ly/2zL9Lha
Revenue Trends for Small Businesses: https://bit.ly/35jYBLQ
Google Helps Businesses Get Online with Free Resources: https://bit.ly/2VPbpa0
Boosting Business with an Online Presence: https://bit.ly/3aVxLuF
Building E-Commerce in Wright County, IA: https://bit.ly/2z2jPll
The overall system architecture of public safety answering points (PSAPs) has essentially not changed since the first 911 call was made in 1968. These 911 systems are voice-only networks based on original wireline, analog, circuit-switched infrastructure that prevents easy transmission of data and critical sharing of information that can significantly enhance the decision-making ability, response, and quality of service provided to emergency callers. To meet growing public expectations of 911-system functionality (capable of voice, data, and video transmission from different types of communication devices), that framework should be replaced. This would require replacing analog phone systems with an Internet Protocol (IP)-based system. This system would provide an enabling platform for current technology, as well as future upgrades., For example, in January 2013, the Federal Communications Commission proposed to amend its rules by requiring all wireless carriers and providers of “interconnected” text messaging applications to support the ability of consumers to send text messages to 911 in all areas throughout the nation where 911 PSAPs are also prepared to receive the texts (which requires an IP-based system). Text-to-911 will provide consumers with enhanced access to emergency communications in situations where a voice call could endanger the caller, or a person with disabilities is unable to make a voice call.
Transition from an analog 911 system to a digital or IP-based system that enables the transmission of voice, data, or video from different types of communication devices to Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs) and onto emergency responder networks.
Action 1 – Create a working group to lead the initiative with representatives from all public safety entities, policymakers, and internet service providers (ISPs)
Public Safety Agencies, PSAP Operators, Local and County Government, Internet Service Providers, State and Local Interoperability Coordinators.